List of Cited Documents

  1. Federspiel, C.C., et al., Worker performance and ventilation in a call center: analyses of work performance data for registered nurses. Indoor Air, 2004. 14 Suppl 8: p. 41-50.
  2. Heschong Mahone Group, Windows and offices: a study of office workers performance and the indoor environment. 2003, Prepared for California Energy Commission: Fair Oaks, CA.
  3. Tham, K.W., Effects of temperature and outdoor air supply rate on the performance of call center operators in the tropics. Indoor Air, 2004. 14 Suppl 7: p. 119-25.
  4. Wargocki, P., D.P. Wyon, and P.O. Fanger, The performance and subjective responses of call-center operators with new and used supply air filters at two outdoor air supply rates. Indoor Air, 2004. 14 Suppl 8: p. 7-16.
  5. Tham, K.W. and H.C. Willem, Effects of reported neurobehavioral symptoms on call center operator performance in the tropics, in RoomVent 2004 Conference 2004: Coimbra, Portugal.
  6. Bako-Biro, Z., Human perception, SBS symptoms and performance of office work during exposure to air polluted by building materials and personal computers, in International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy 2004, Technical University of Denmark.
  7. Wargocki, P., et al., The effects of outdoor air supply rate in an office on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and productivity. Indoor Air, 2000. 10(4): p. 222-36.
  8. Park, J.S. and C.H. Yoon, The effects of outdoor air supply rate on work performance during 8-h work period. Indoor Air, 2011. 21(4): p. 284-290.
  9. Wargocki, P., et al., Perceived air quality, sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and productivity in an office with two different pollution loads. Indoor Air, 1999. 9(3): p. 165-179.
  10. Wargocki, P., et al., Subjective perceptions, symptom intensity, and performance: a comparison of two independent studies, both changing similarly the pollution load in an office. Indoor Air, 2002. 12(2): p. 74-80.
  11. Seppänen, O., W.J. Fisk, and Q.H. Lei, Ventilation and performance in office work. Indoor Air, 2006. 16(1): p. 28-36.
  12. Maddalena, D., et al., Effects of ventilation rate per person and per floor area on perceived air quality, sick building symptoms, and decision making. Indoor Air, 2015. 25(4): p. 362-370.
  13. Allen, J.G., et al., Associations of cognitive function scores with carbon dioxide, ventilation, and volatile organic compound exposures in office workers: a controlled exposure study of green and conventional office environments. Environmental Health Perspectives (Online), 2016. 124(6): p. 805-812.
  14. Zhang, X., et al., Effects of exposure to carbon dioxide and bioeffluents on perceived air quality, self-assessed acute health symptoms and cognitive performance. Indoor Air, 2017. 27: p. 47-64.
  15. Shan, X., et al., Comparing mixing and displacement ventilation in tutorial rooms: Students' thermal comfort, sick building syndromes, and short-term performance. Building and Environment, 2016. 102: p. 128-137.
  16. Maula, H., et al., The effect of low ventilation rate with elevated bioeffluent concentration on work performance, perceived indoor air quality and health symptoms. Indoor Air, 2017. DOI: 10.1111/ina.12387.
  17. Fisk , W.J., The ventilation problem in schools: literature review. Indoor Air, 2017(
  18. Haverinen-Shaughnessy, U., D.J. Moschandreas, and R.J. Shaughnessy, Association between substandard classroom ventilation rates and students' academic achievement. Indoor Air, 2011. 21(2): p. 121-31.
  19. ASHRAE, ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2004 Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality. 2004, American Society for Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc.: Atlanta.
  20. Wargocki, P. and D.P. Wyon, The effect of moderately raised classroom temperatures and classroom ventilation rate on the performance of schoolwork by children. HVAC&R Research, 2007. 13(2): p. 193-220.
  21. Wargocki, P. and D.P. Wyon, The effects of outdoor air supply rate and supply air filter condition in classrooms on the performance of schoolwork by children. HVAC&R Research, 2007. 13(2): p. 165-191.
  22. Wargocki, P. and D.P. Wyon, Research report on effects of HVAC on student performance. ASHRAE Journal 2006. 48: p. 22-28.
  23. Seppänen, O.A., W.J. Fisk, and M.J. Mendell, Association of ventilation rates and CO2 concentrations with health and other responses in commercial and institutional buildings. Indoor Air, 1999. 9(4): p. 226-52.
  24. Brundage, J.F., et al., Building-associated risk of febrile acute respiratory diseases in Army trainees. JAMA, 1988. 259(14): p. 2108-12.
  25. Drinka, P.J., et al., Report of an outbreak: nursing home architecture and influenza-A attack rates. J Am Geriatr Soc, 1996. 44(8): p. 910-3.
  26. Hoge, C.W., et al., An epidemic of pneumococcal disease in an overcrowded, inadequately ventilated jail. N Engl J Med, 1994. 331(10): p. 643-8.
  27. Li, Y., et al., Role of ventilation in airborne transmission of infectious agents in the built environment - a multidisciplinary systematic review. Indoor Air, 2007. 17(1): p. 2-18.
  28. Milton, D.K., P.M. Glencross, and M.D. Walters, Risk of sick leave associated with outdoor air supply rate, humidification, and occupant complaints. Indoor Air, 2000. 10(4): p. 212-21.
  29. Mendell, M.J., et al., A longitudinal study of ventilation rates in California office buildings and self-reported occupant outcomes including respiratory illness absence. Building and Environment, 2015. 92: p. 292–304.
  30. Myatt, T.A., et al., A study of indoor carbon dioxide levels and sick leave among office workers. Environmental Health, 2002. 1(1): p. 3.
  31. Shendell, D.G., et al., Associations between classroom CO2 concentrations and student attendance in Washington and Idaho. Indoor Air, 2004. 14(5): p. 333-41.
  32. Mendell, M.J., et al., Association of classroom ventilation with reduced illness absence: a prospective study in California elementary schools. Indoor Air, 2013. 23(6): p. 515-528.
  33. Gaihre, S., et al., Classroom carbon dioxide concentration, school attendance, and educational attainment. J Sch Health, 2014. 84(9): p. 569-74.
  34. Haverinen-Shaughnessy, U., et al., An assessment of indoor environmental quality in schools and its association with health and performance. Building and Environment, 2015.
  35. Kolarik, B., et al., Ventilation in day care centers and sick leave among nursery children. Indoor Air, 2016. 26(2): p. 157-167.
  36. Gottfried, M.A., Evaluating the relationship between student attendance and achievement in urban elementary and middle schools an instrumental variables approach. American Educational Research Journal, 2010. 47(2): p. 434-465.
  37. Wargocki, P., et al., Ventilation and health in non-industrial indoor environments: report from a European multidisciplinary scientific consensus meeting (EUROVEN). Indoor Air, 2002. 12(2): p. 113-28.
  38. Sundell, J., et al., Ventilation rates and health: multidisciplinary review of the scientific literature. Indoor Air, 2011. 21(3): p. 191-204.
  39. Carrer, P., et al., What does the scientific literature tell us about the ventilation–health relationship in public and residential buildings? Building and Environment, 2015. 94: p. 273-286.
  40. Jafari, M.J., et al., Association of sick building syndrome with indoor air parameters. Tanaffos, 2015. 14(1): p. 55.
  41. Lim, F.-L., et al., Sick building syndrome (SBS) among office workers in a Malaysian university—Associations with atopy, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and the office environment. Science of the Total Environment, 2015. 536: p. 353-361.
  42. Lu, C.Y., et al., Building-related symptoms among office employees associated with indoor carbon dioxide and total volatile organic compounds. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2015. 12(6): p. 5833-45.
  43. Tsai, D.-H., J.-S. Lin, and C.-C. Chan, Office workers’ sick building syndrome and indoor carbon dioxide concentrations. Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene, 2012. 9(5): p. 345-351.
  44. Zamani, M.E., J. Jalaludin, and N. Shaharom, Indoor air quality and prevalence of sick building syndrome among office workers in two different offices in Selangor. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 2013. 10(10): p. 1140.
  45. Mendell, M.J., et al., Outdoor air ventilation and work-related symptoms in U.S. office buildings - results from the BASE study. LBNL-56381. 2005, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: Berkeley, CA.
  46. Fisk, W.J., A.G. Mirer, and M.J. Mendell, Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates. Indoor Air, 2009. 19(2): p. 159-165.
  47. ASHRAE, ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010. Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality. 2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.: Atlanta, GA.
  48. Dorizas, P.V., M.N. Assimakopoulos, and M. Santamouris, A holistic approach for the assessment of the indoor environmental quality, student productivity, and energy consumption in primary schools. Environ Monit Assess, 2015. 187(5): p. 259.
  49. Kim, J.-L., et al., Respiratory health among Korean pupils in relation to home, school and outdoor environment. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 2011. 26(2): p. 166-173.
  50. Mi, Y.H., et al., Current asthma and respiratory symptoms among pupils in Shanghai, China: influence of building ventilation, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and formaldehyde in classrooms. Indoor Air, 2006. 16(6): p. 454-64.
  51. Muscatiello, N., et al., Classroom conditions and CO2 concentrations and teacher health symptom reporting in 10 New York State Schools. Indoor Air, 2015. 25(2): p. 157-67.
  52. Simoni, M., et al., School air quality related to dry cough, rhinitis and nasal patency in children. Eur Respir J, 2010. 35(4): p. 742-9.
  53. Zhang, X., et al., A longitudinal study of sick building syndrome (SBS) among pupils in relation to SO2, NO2, O3 and PM10 in schools in China. PLoS One, 2014. 9(11): p. e112933.
  54. Petersen, S., et al., The effect of increased classroom ventilation rate indicated by reduced CO2 concentration on the performance of schoolwork by children. Indoor Air, 2016. 26: p. 366-379.
  55. Ferreira, A.M. and M. Cardoso, Indoor air quality and health in schools. J Bras Pneumol, 2014. 40(3): p. 259-68.
  56. Kinshella, M.R., et al., Perceptions of indoor air quality associated with ventilation system types in elementary schools. Appl Occup Environ Hyg, 2001. 16(10): p. 952-60.
  57. Wålinder, R., et al., Nasal patency and biomarkers in nasal lavage–the significance of air exchange rate and type of ventilation in schools. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1998. 71(7): p. 479-486.
  58. Harving, H., J. Korsgaard, and R. Dahl, House-dust mite exposure reduction in specially designed, mechanically ventilated "healthy" homes. Allergy, 1994a. 49(9): p. 713-8.

  59. Harving, H., J. Korsgaard, and R. Dahl, Clinical efficacy of reduction in house-dust mite exposure in specially designed, mechanically ventilated "healthy" homes. Allergy, 1994b. 49(10): p. 866-70.

  60. Norbäck, D., et al., Asthma symptoms and volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde, and carbon dioxide in dwellings. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995. 52(6): p. 388-395.

  61. Kovesi, T., et al., Indoor air quality and the risk of lower respiratory tract infections in young Canadian Inuit children. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2007. 177(2): p. 155-160.

  62. Sun, Y., et al., In China, students in crowded dormitories with a low ventilation rate have more common colds: evidence for airborne transmission. PLoS One, 2011. 6(11): p. e27140.

  63. Bentayeb, M., et al., Indoor air quality, ventilation and respiratory health in elderly residents living in nursing homes in Europe. European Respiratory Journal, 2015: p. ERJ-00824-2014.

  64. Singleton, R., et al., Housing characteristics and indoor air quality in households of Alaska Native children with chronic lung conditions. Indoor air, 2017. 27(2): p. 478-486.

  65. Wang, J., et al., Current wheeze, asthma, respiratory infections, and rhinitis among adults in relation to inspection data and indoor measurements in single‐family houses in Sweden—The BETSI study. Indoor air, 2017.

  66. Oie, L., et al., Ventilation in homes and bronchial obstruction in young children. Epidemiology, 1999. 10(3): p. 294-9.

  67. Emenius, G., et al., Building characteristics, indoor air quality and recurrent wheezing in very young children (BAMSE). Indoor Air, 2004. 14(1): p. 34-42.

  68. Bornehag, C.G., et al., Association between ventilation rates in 390 Swedish homes and allergic symptoms in children. Indoor Air, 2005. 15(4): p. 275-80.

  69. Hägerhed‐Engman, L., et al., Low home ventilation rate in combination with moldy odor from the building structure increase the risk for allergic symptoms in children. Indoor air, 2009. 19(3): p. 184-192.

  70. Bekö, G., et al., Ventilation rates in the bedrooms of 500 Danish children. Building and Environment, 2010. 45(10): p. 2289-2295.

  71. Callesen, M., et al., Associations between selected allergens, phthalates, nicotine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and bedroom ventilation and clinically confirmed asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis in preschool children. Indoor air, 2014. 24(2): p. 136-147.

  72. Liu, W., et al., Associations between natural ventilation for the child's bedroom during night and childhood asthma in Shanghai, China. Procedia Engineering, 2015. 121: p. 501-505.

  73. Sun, Y., et al., Ventilation and dampness in dorms and their associations with allergy among college students in China: a case-control study. Indoor Air, 2011. 21(4): p. 277-83.

  74. Howieson, S., et al., Domestic ventilation rates, indoor humidity and dust mite allergens: are our homes causing the asthma pandemic? Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, 2003. 24(3): p. 137-147.

  75. Warner, J.A., et al., Mechanical ventilation and high-efficiency vacuum cleaning: A combined strategy of mite and mite allergen reduction in the control of mite-sensitive asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2000. 105(1 Pt 1): p. 75-82.

  76. Engvall, K., P. Wickman, and D. Norbäck, Sick building syndrome and perceived indoor environment in relation to energy saving by reduced ventilation flow during heating season: a 1 year intervention study in dwellings. Indoor air, 2005. 15(2): p. 120-126.

  77. Kovesi, T., et al., Heat recovery ventilators prevent respiratory disorders in Inuit children. Indoor air, 2009. 19(6): p. 489-499.

  78. Wright, G.R., et al., Effect of improved home ventilation on asthma control and house dust mite allergen levels. Allergy, 2009. 64(11): p. 1671-80.

  79. Lajoie, P., et al., The IVAIRE project - A randomized controlled study of the impact of ventilation on indoor air quality and the respiratory symptoms of asthmatic children in single family homes. Indoor Air, 2015. 25(6): p. 582-597.

  80. Strøm‐Tejsen, P., et al., The effects of bedroom air quality on sleep and next‐day performance. Indoor air, 2016. 26(5): p. 679-686.

  81. Francisco, P.W., et al., Ventilation, indoor air quality, and health in homes undergoing weatherization. Indoor air, 2017. 27(2): p. 463-477.

  82. DHHS, The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: a report of the surgeon general. 2006, Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health: Washington, DC
  83. California EPA, Health effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke – final report 1997, California Environmental Protection Agency – Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment.
  84. WHO, Concise international chemical assessment document 40 – formaldehyde. 2002, World Health Organization: Geneva.
  85. Mendell, M.J., Indoor residential chemical exposures as risk factors for asthma and allergy in infants and children: a review, in Healthy Buildings 2006 2006. p. 151-156.
  86. Asikainen, A., et al., Reducing burden of disease from residential indoor air exposures in Europe (HEALTHVENT project). Environmental Health, 2016. 15(1): p. S35.
  87. ASHRAE, ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2010. Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality in low rise residential buildings. 2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc: Atlanta, GA.
  88. Fisk, W.J., D. Faulkner, and D.P. Sullivan, Measuring outdoor airflow into HVAC systems. ASHRAE Journal, 2006. 48(8): p. 50-57.
  89. Persily, A.K. and J. Gorfain, Analysis of office building ventilation data from the US Environmental Protection Agency Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE). NISTIR # 7145. 2004, National Institute of Standards and Technology: Gaithersburg, MD.
  90. Price, P.N. and M.H. Sherman, Ventilation behavior and household characteristics in new California houses.  LBNL-59620. 2006, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: Berkeley, CA.
  91. ASHRAE, HVAC systems and equipment, in ASHRAE Handbook Chapter 5. 2004, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc.: Atlanta, GA.
  92. Fisk, W.J., et al., Economic benefits of an economizer system: energy savings and reduced sick leave. ASHRAE Transactions 2005. 111(2): p. 673-679.
  93. Hodgson, A.T. and J.R. Girman, Exposure to methylene chloride from controlled use of a paint remover in residences,  LBNL-23078. 1987, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: Berkeley, CA.
  94. Hubbell, B.J., et al., Health-related benefits of attaining the 8-hr ozone standard. Environ Health Perspect, 2005. 113(1): p. 73-82.
  95. Weschler, C.J., Ozone in indoor environments: concentration and chemistry. Indoor Air, 2000. 10(4): p. 269-288.
  96. Pope, C.A., 3rd and D.W. Dockery, Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect. J Air Waste Manag Assoc, 2006. 56(6): p. 709-42.
  97. Fisk, W.J., et al., Performance and costs of particle air filtration technologies. Indoor Air, 2002. 12(4): p. 223-34.
  98. ASTM, ASTM D6245-12, Standard guide for using indoor carbon dioxide concentrations to evaluate indoor air quality and ventilation. 2012: West Conshohocken, PA.
  99. Case, E. and J. Haldane, Human physiology under high pressure: I. Effects of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and cold. Journal of Hygiene, 1941. 41(3): p. 225-249.
  100. Fothergill, D., D. Hedges, and J. Morrison, Effects of CO2 and N2 partial pressures on cognitive and psychomotor performance. Undersea Biomedical Research, 1991. 18(1): p. 1-19.
  101. Vercruyssen, M., E. Kamon, and P.A. Hancock, Effects of carbon dioxide inhalation on psychomotor and mental performance during exercise and recovery. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2007. 13(1): p. 15-27.
  102. Sayers, J., et al., Effects of carbon dioxide on mental performance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 1987. 63(1): p. 25-30.
  103. Sheehy, J.B., E. Kamon, and D. Kiser, Effects of carbon dioxide inhalation on psychomotor and mental performance during exercise and recovery. Human Factors, 1982. 24(5): p. 581-588.
  104. Henning, R., et al., Behavioral impairment with normobaric, hyperoxic 6% CO2, in Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society Annual Scientific Meeting. 1985: Long Beach, CA.
  105. Consolazio, W., et al., Effects on man of high concentrations of carbon dioxide in relation to various oxygen pressures during exposures as long as 72 hours. American Journal of Physiology-Legacy Content, 1947. 151(2): p. 479-503.
  106. Kajtár, L. and L. Herczeg, Influence of carbon-dioxide concentration on human well-being and intensity of mental work. Quarterly Journal of the Hungarian Meteorological Service, 2012. 116(2): p. 145-169.
  107. Satish, U., et al., Is CO2 an indoor pollutant?  Direct effects of low-to-moderate CO2 concentrations on human decision-making performance. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2012. 120(12): p. 1671-1677.
  108. Zhang, X., P. Wargocki, and Z. Lian, Human responses to carbon dioxide, a follow-up study at recommended exposure limits in non-industrial environments. Building and Environment, 2016. 100: p. 162-171.
  109. Zhang, X., P. Wargocki, and Z. Lian, Physiological responses during exposure to carbon dioxide and bioeffluents at levels typically occurring indoors. Indoor Air, 2017. 27: p. 65-77.
  110. Liu, W., W. Zhong, and P. Wargocki, Performance, acute health symptoms and physiological responses during exposure to high air temperature and carbon dioxide concentration. Building and Environment, 2017. 114: p. 96-105.
  111. Allen, J.G., et al., Airplane pilot flight performance on 21 maneuvers in a flight simulator under varying carbon dioxide concentrations. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, 2018.
  112. Cao X., M.P., Cadet L.R., Cedeno-Laurent J.G., Flanigan S., Vallarino J., Donnelly-McLay D., Christiani D.C., Spengler J.D., Allen J.G., Heart rate variability and perfor- mance of commercial airline pilots during flight simulations. International Journal of En- vironmental Research and Public Health, 2019. 16: p. 237.
  113. Rodeheffer, C.D., et al., Acute exposure to low-to-moderate carbon dioxide levels and submariner decision making. Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance, 2018. 89(6): p. 520-525.
  114. Scully, R.R., et al., Effects of acute exposures to carbon dioxide on decision making and cognition in astronaut-like subjects. npj Microgravity, 2019. 5(1): p. 17.
  115. Snow, S., et al., Exploring the physiological, neurophysiological and cognitive perfor- mance effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations indoors. Building and Environment, 2019. 156: p. 243-252.
  116. Fisk, W., P. Wargocki, and X. Zhang, Do indoor CO2 levels directly affect perceived air quality, health, or work performance?. ASHRAE Journal, 2019. 61(9): p. 70-77.
  117. EPA, Energy cost and IAQ performance of ventilation systems and controls: Project 4, impacts of increased outdoor air flow rates on annual HVAC energy costs,  EPA-402-S-01-001D. 2000, Environmental Protection Agency.
  118. EPA, Energy cost and IAQ performance of ventilation systems and controls,  EPA-402-S-01-001. 2000b, Environmental Protection Agency.
  119. Benne, K., et al., Assessment of the energy impacts of outside air in the commercial sector,  NREL/TP-550-41955. 2009, National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Golden, CO.
  120. Mendell, M.J., Non-specific symptoms in office workers: a review and summary of the epidemiologic literature. Indoor Air, 1993. 3: p. 227-236.
  121. Menzies, D. and Bourbeau, Building related illness. New England Journal of Medicine, 1997. 337(21): p. 1524-1531.
  122. Mendell, M.J. and G.A. Heath, Do indoor pollutants and thermal conditions in schools influence student performance? A critical review of the literature. Indoor Air, 2005. 15(1): p. 27-52.